Focus Module Game Play Overview
Game Play Category: Target Games
What Target Games Develop
The aim of a target game is to place a projectile near, or in a target in order to have the best possible score. Target games can be in the form of either a team sport or an individual sport and sub-categorized into being either unopposed (e.g. golf, archery, ten pin bowling) or opposed (e.g. lawn bowling, curling, shuffleboard). With opposed target games players can prevent their opposition from scoring by knocking or blocking their opponent’s ball or rock to an unfavorable position in relation to the designated target. The player then has to be aware of their opponent’s execution as well as some offensive and defensive strategies. By contrast in an unopposed target game, a player focuses solely on their execution in an attempt to be as close to the target as possible.
Some of the activities in the CJK manuals has been modified and teachers are encouraged to further modify where needed to consider the students physical, cognitive, and social states of development in order to the students to be successful.
As in all game play categories there are transferable skills. Skills acquired in one game are also utilized in other games. In order for these skills to be transferable, the games must be similar to each other. Further categorization can occur around identifying other features e.g tactics, rules, and skills.
Transferable skills that are common to target games include:
- Hand-eye, foot-eye accuracy.
- A student’s ability to aim and shoot/throw/roll for a gaol or target.
- The synchronization of differing body parts when releasing the object used in the game.
- In order to alter the flight or path of the released object both gross and fine motor skills are used.
Target games also include the opportunity to develop strategies.If the target game being played is unopposed, it is likely that only offensive strategies will be used.
However, if the target game being played is opposed, then it is more likely that both offensive and defensive strategies will be used (Griffin et al., 2006, p. 21). In offensive strategies accuracy and aim are the main focus with the goal being to get the object as close to the target as possible.
Several defensive strategies can be implemented within target games. Blocking your opponents path to the target is a very common strategy. Using your ability to control aim and accuracy to have your object rest in an area that blocks a path and decreases your opponents chances of having their object be closer to the target. Tactical aspects of Target games such as the aim and accuracy and the protection of the target come with a degree of complexity. For example, aim and accuracy has a lower level of complexity while the protection of a target has a much higher level of complexity (PlaySport).
Game Play Activities
The unit is introduced with a game called “Ambush” that uses a large up ball (similar in size to a Swiss ball) as the target. The children explore different ways to throw a variety of sized balls to hit the large ball to propel it towards the opposition’s goal line. Roles and responsibilities are developed to improve the success of the game.
Target games for the younger children are introduced using beanbags which are thrown towards a target such as a hoop. The language of aim and accuracy are introduced and the related skills to help make the children successful.
Hopscotch is introduced and the children develop a jump hop sequence in order to play the game successfully. Ten pin bowling using targets that a ball is rolled at and “Beanbag Golf” are other activities introduced in Level 1 activities. The system used in scoring a gold game is also introduced which is opposite to normal scoring systems whereby the smallest score is the winner.At this stage the children are only aiming at stationary targets
In Level 2 the children are introduced to games that include both stationary and moving targets. Danish Rounders means they themselves are the target. They are also encouraged to collect information while playing the game so that they can make better choices while playing the game. Beanbag Golf is also included, but distances are increased to add to the difficulty.
While some of the activities in Level 3 are similar to Level 2, the level of complexity is increased as well as the development of strategy and tactics is also included. Learning to throw and catch a frisbee is taught, so that the children can participate in games involving frisbees. These include Ultimate Frisbee and Frisbee Golf.
Focus Module Character Overview
Focus Character Words
The character focus encourages the students to have a vision for the future, for not only themselves but for others. Some optical illusions are used as a fun way to introduce the unit on focus.
The first word explored is vision, and this is to encourage the children to have dreams for what they could achieve in the future. For some of the younger children this might be around something as simple as moving up a reading group, for the older children their sights can be set a lot higher.
The second word introduced is the word Goals. The students are taken given some goal setting tools to enable them to begin working towards their vision. The S.M.A.R.T. Goals acronym is used to give the children a process through which they can begin to set targets to achieve their goals. In this way they begin to practice some of the skills required to achieve their goals. The older children are encouraged to make plans and to focus on smaller steps as they set out to achieve longer term goals such as what they want to do when they leave school, or to achieve some kind of sporting or cultural goal that they may have set for themselves.
Finally the word Action is used to enable the children to put some action into the goals that they have set. Using their initiative is what is needed to put a plan into action. Using their initiative will help make things happen. The idea is kept simple for the younger children with the additional ideas being introduced with the older children. The development of some problem solving skills helps the student to focus on a problem to help them achieve their dream.